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Child Psychiatrist /Adult Psychiatrist

The Implications of COVID-19 for Mental Health and Substance Use

Updated: Sep 14, 2023

Concerns about mental health and substance use remain elevated three years after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, with 90% of U.S. adults believing that the country is facing a mental health crisis, according to a recent KFF/CNN survey. The pandemic has affected the public’s mental health and well-being in a variety of ways, including through isolation and loneliness, job loss and financial instability, and illness and grief.


Over the course of the pandemic, many adults reported symptoms consistent with anxiety and depression, with approximately four in ten adults reporting these symptoms by early 2021, before declining to approximately three in ten adults as the pandemic continued (Figure 1). Additionally, drug overdose deaths have sharply increased – largely due to fentanyl – and after a brief period of decline, suicide deaths are once again on the rise. These negative mental health and substance use outcomes have disproportionately affected some populations, particularly communities of color and youth. As the end of the declaration of the public health emergency nears – on May 11, 2023 – many people continue to grapple with worsened mental health and well-being and face barriers to care.



Mental health and Substance use

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This brief explores mental health and substance use during, and prior to, the COVID-19 pandemic. We highlight populations that were more likely to experience worse mental health and substance use outcomes during the pandemic and discuss some innovations in the delivery of services. We analyze and present findings using the most recent data available at the time of this publication – including the Household Pulse Survey and the CDC WONDER database. Key takeaways include:

  • Symptoms of anxiety and depression increased during the pandemic and are more pronounced among individuals experiencing household job loss, young adults, and women. Adolescent females have also experienced increased feelings of hopelessness and sadness compared to their male peers.

  • Deaths due to drug overdose increased sharply across the total population coinciding with the pandemic – and more than doubled among adolescents. Drug overdose death rates are highest among American Indian and Alaska Native people and Black people.

  • Alcohol-induced death rates increased substantially during the pandemic, with rates increasing the fastest among people of color and people living in rural areas.

  • After briefly decreasing, suicide deaths are on the rise again as of 2021. From 2019 to 2021, many communities of color experienced a larger growth in suicide death rates compared to their White counterparts. Additionally, self-harm and suicidal ideation has increased faster among adolescent females compared to their male peers.

  • Several changes have been implemented in the delivery of mental health and substance use services since the onset of the pandemic, including the utilization of telehealth, steps to improve access to treatment for opioid use disorders, expansion of school-based mental health care, and the rollout of the 988 crisis line. As the public health emergency declaration comes to an end, it is possible that some of these changes will be interrupted.

Prevalence of Mental Illness and Substance Use During the Pandemic

Anxiety and depression

The pandemic was associated with a high prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms in adults. Research suggests that these symptoms increased during the pandemic, but the extent of this increase is unclear.1 Throughout the pandemic, symptoms of anxiety and depression have been more pronounced among several populations.

For example, individuals experiencing household job loss were more likely than their counterparts to report symptoms of anxiety and/or depression (53% vs. 30%) in February 2023 (Figure 2). Job loss and unemployment – which have long been associated with adverse mental health outcomes – increased substantially early on in the pandemic.



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Fifty percent of young adults (ages 18-24) reported anxiety and depression symptoms in 2023, making them more likely than older adults to experience mental health symptoms (Figure 2). Young adults have experienced a number of pandemic-related consequences – such as closures of universities, transitioning to remote work, and loss of income or employment – that may contribute to poor mental health. Additionally, young adults in college settings may encounter increased difficulty accessing treatment.


Symptoms of anxiety and/or depression were also elevated among women (36%) compared to men (28%) in February 2023 (Figure 2). Even before the pandemic, women were more likely than men to report mental health disorders, including serious mental illness.

Concerns about youth mental health further increased with the onset of the pandemic and the recent uptick in gun violence. In a recent KFF/CNN survey, roughly half of parents (47%) said the pandemic had a negative impact on their child’s mental health, including 17% who said it had a “major negative impact”. Poor mental health has been more pronounced among adolescent females in particular. As shown in Figure 3, the gap in the share of adolescent females and males reporting feelings of hopelessness and sadness – symptoms indicative of depressive disorder – widened from 2019 (47% vs. 27%, respectively) to 2021 (57% vs. 29%, respectively). Many female adolescents also reported adverse experiences in 2021, which can negatively impact mental health.


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